Viral infections, a brief overview

Viruses are the main reasons for causing different types of viral infections. Viral infections can be either treated by vaccination or with the use of antiviral drugs. There are however a number of viral infections which are capable of avoiding the immune response from these countermeasures and develop resistance through mutation.

This is why it is imperative to understand the different types of viral infection and the most common diseases caused by the same. Here is a comprehensive list of common viral infections and their associated viruses.

Encephalitis or Meningitis: Symptoms are mainly caused due to virus strains like JC virus (John Cunnigham Virus), measles, arbovirus and LCM virus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis).

Common cold: Common cold affects a majority of the population caused due to rhinoviruses, Parainfluenza virus and also respiratory syncytial virus with mild symptoms like a headache, fever, nausea, fatigue among others.

Pharyngitis: A condition which results in inflammation in the back of the throat affecting the pharynx, which results in symptoms like a sore throat and fever. The viruses commonly causing this condition include Adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Cytomegalovirus.

Eye infections: Visible indicators of eye infections include pain, itching due to any foreign object in the eyes, sensitivity to light, redness and small lines visible in the white part of the eyeball, crusty puss formation due to a bacterial infection among others. Adenovirus and cytomegalovirus are mainly responsible for causing eye infections.

Pneumonia: A severe lung infection which is caused due to strains of viruses including influenza virus A and B, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus or SARS coronavirus. Common symptoms of pneumonia include a cough with phlegm, fever, chills, difficulty in breathing with a sharp pain in the chest.

Viral skin infections: Varicella-zoster virus, human herpesvirus 6, smallpox, molluscum, contagious, human papillomavirus, Parvovirus B19, rubella, Measles, Coxsackie A virus are the common culprits causing skin infections and the associated symptoms.

Parotitis: Parotitis is a viral infection which affects the salivary glands curable by vaccination. Common symptoms include pain in the abdomen, muscles, pelvis or even in the testicles. People might also experience chills in the body, combined with fatigue, fever leading to loss of appetite. Difficulty in swallowing or soreness in the throat. Other common symptoms of Parotitis include dry mouth, headache, swelling in the neck, swollen lymph nodes, swollen salivary glands and even mild hearing loss.

Other viral infections with carrier viruses which can be transmitted include Pancreatitis, gastroenteritis, cardiovascular, hepatitis, gingivostomatitis, and myelitis among others.